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Thosk-Engel Banhuzd/Thosk-English Dictionary

**Sitemap / menu**

A | B | D | E | F | G | H | I | J | K | L | M | N | O | P | R | S | T | Th | U | V | Z


Abbreviations:

ab = abbreviation aj = adjective av = adverb cj = conjunction expr = expression/idiom/phrase i = interjection lw = loanword n = noun pn = pronoun pp = preposition pt = particle sfx = suffix v = verb vi = intransitive verb vt = transitive verb

Note: * denotes a reconstruction of the Indo-European root from which the Thosk word utimately derives.


-A- [Back]
a: pt
vocative particle (Thosk bekovend a); direct address, used with names; takes form av before following vowel
ab: n – reach, achievement, accomplishment. *ap/ep
aban: pp – after, behind. *ap
abanake: vt – delay, put after, postpose. *ap + ag
abanast: n – posterity, anteriority. *ap + ost
abandest: n – postponement, deferment. *ap + dhe
abandeze: vt – put after, postpone, defer. *ap + dhe
abandift: n – suffix, postposition. *ap + dhigw
abandive: vt – suffix, put after, postpone/pose. *ap + dhigw
abangredake: vt – remove st, withdraw it. *ap + ghredh + ag
abangrede: vi – backstep, retreat, withdraw. *ap + ghredh
abangrest: n – retreat, withdrawal. *ap + ghredh + ti
abankivend: n – survivor. *ap + gwiw + ent
abankivod: n – survival, afterlife. *ap + gwiw + ot
abankond: n – hindsight, afterknowledge. *ap + gno + ti
abankud: n – afterword, speech, epilog. *ap + gow + ti
abankume: vt – succeed, follow. *ap+gum
abankund: n – succession, following. *ap+gum+ti
abanmene: v – reflect, consider. *ap+men
abanmind: n – afterthought, reflection. *ap+men+ti
abannoht: n – tomorrow night (colloquial)
abantaht: n – remorse. *ap+dak+ti
abantahti: aj – remorseful. *ap+dak+ti+jo
abantahtvag: n – remorseless. *ap+dak+ti+wa
abanterge: vt – look after, behind, reflect. *ap+derk
abantirht: n – aftersight, image. *ap+drk+ti
abantorg: n – reflection. *ap+dork
abe: vt – reach, obtain. *ap/ep
aber: aj – strong. *abhr-
aberne: vi – becomes strong. *abhr+ne
abi: aj – achieved, accomplished. V. ebi. *ap
abrake: vt – strengthen, fortify tr
abrakej: n – strengthening
abrast: n – strength. *abhr+st
abvag: aj – unaccomplished, untried, novice, amateur *ap/ep+wak
adar: n – father. *pater. Naze Adar “Our Father”; Lord’s Prayer
aft: n – attainment, reaching *ap/ep
ag: n – point, thorn *ak
agake: vt – frighten
agakej: n – frightening
age: v – fear *agh. bi>/p> agi: aj – pointed, thorny *ak
agi: n – fear
ahi: pn – some-, anyone. *kwi
ahiahi: pn – anyone. inf. a’jahi
aht: n – fear
ahun: pn – some-, anything
ahunahun: pn – whatever. inf. a’nahun.
ahutu: adv – some-, anytime, ever
ahutahutu: adv – whenever. inf. atatu
ahuz: adv – some-, anywhere
ahuzahuz: adv – wherever. inf. a’zahuz
ajr: n – field *agro
ake: vt – cause *ag
alb, aleb: aj – white. *albh
albake: vt – whiten. *albh + ag
albakej: n – whitening
albast: n – whiteness. *albh + st
ald: n – rearing, nourishment *al-t
ale: vt – feed, nourish, raise *al
Aleks: n – name
alem: n – food *al + m
ali: aj – other, V. ani *alyo
alirekni: aj – foreign. *alj + regn
aljake: vt – alter, transform tr *alj + ag
aljakej: n – alteration
alme: vt – feed
almed: n – feeding
alu: n – beer *alu
Alzan: n – name (Alexander)
ambast: n – reappearance. *anu+bas+ti
ambaze: vi – reshow, reappear *anu + bas
an: av – again *anu
Ana: n – name
anake: vt – cause to breathe *an + ag
anakej: n – artificial respiration
and: n – breath *an + ti
andest: n – replacement, repositioning
andeze: vt – replace, reposition *anu+dhes
andund: n – reverberation, resounding, echo
andune: vi – echo, resound *anu+dhun
andunvag: aj – anechoic, echoless
andvag: aj – breathless. *an+ti+wak
ane: vt – breathe. *an
ange: vt – press, constrain *angh
angrupak: vt – regroup. *anu+grup+ag
angu: aj – narrow, tight *anghu
angune: vi – tighten, become tense, narrow; constrict
angust/angvast: n – tightness, narrowness
angusti: aj – constrictive. *angh+st+jo
anguvake: vt – tighten, narrow tr
anguvakej: n – tightening, constriction
anhurd: n – remaking, redoing *anu+kwer+ti
anhure: vt – remake, redo *anu+kwer
ani: aj – second, other *anjo
anid: n – flower. Name *anedho
anidmin: aj – flowery, -ed
anird: n – resurrection. *anu+er+ti
anire: vt – rise again, resurrect *anu+er
aniv(e)nake: vt – rejuvenate. anju(ve)nak
anivnakej: n – rejuvenation
anjake: vt – repeat (old form: anak)
anjakej: n – repetition. V. anjakej
ankenake: vt – regenerate, give birth again
ankene: vi – be born again *anu+gen
ankind: n – rebirth, Renaissance *anu+gen+ti
ankivake: vt – revive tr *anu+gwiw+ag
ankivakej: n – revival
ankond: n – recognition. *anu+gno+ti
ankone: vt – recognize (var. form: ankiknel)
ankove: vt – repeat, reiterate *anu+gow
ankud: n – repetition. *anu+gow+ti
ankudi: aj – repetitious
ankumake: vt – bring back, fetch
ankume: vi – return. *anu+gum+ag
ankund: n – return
anlonake: vt – refill. *anu+plon+ag
anmene: vt – reconsider, rethink *anu+men
anmind: n – reconsideration. *anu+men+ti
annujake: vt – renew. V. nujak tr *anu+nowj+ag
annujakej: n – renewal
annust: n – reuse. *anu+nud+ti
annute: vt – reuse. *anu+nud
anspegag: n – reviewer. *anu+spek+os
anspege: vt – review. *anu+speg
anspeht: n – reviewing
anspoge: vt – review (periodical)
anst: n – favor, esteem, regard
ansund: n – echo. *anu+swen+ti
ansune: vi – echo. *anu+swen
antad: n – giving back, return, repayment
antaje: vt – give back, return, repay *anu+da
anterge: vt – review, re-examine *anu+derk
antirht: n – reviewing. *anu+derk+ti
antiv: reflect *anu+deiw
antorg: n – review, re-examination *anu+dork
antropologja: n – anthropology. V. nervist
anvite: vt – review/reexamine. Anterge, spog. *anu+weid
anze: vt – favor, esteem, regard well *ans
apol: n – apple. Var. apel
arder: n – plow *aratro
are: vt – plow *ar
arkan(d): n – silver, money. arken *argent
astronomja: n – astronomy. V. sterenvist
at: aj – near, approximate *ad
atak: v – bring near
atast: n – nearness, proximity
atne: v – approach
atned: v – approaching
aun: n – lamb *agwhno
Avgust: n – August
Avril: n – April
az: n
hearth, fireplace *as-

-B-
[Back]
ba: i – yes
bab: n – bean
bad: n – speaking. *bha+ti
badel: n – story. *bha+tlo
badlag: n – storyteller, poet
bag: n – arm *bhaghu
baj: aj – bright, shine, dawn V. fordbai
baje: vi – speak. *bha
bak: n – beech, tree *bhagos
balst: n – worship. *bhlad+ti
balsti: aj – reverent, worshipful
balte: v – worship, revere. blot/bolt *bhlad
ban: n – word *bhan
banake: vt – verbalize. *bhan+ag
banakej: n – verbalization
banboz: aj – frank, direct. V. mindboz
band: n – speaking. *bhan+ti
bane: v – speak *bhan
bangrup: n – phrase
bangu: aj – thick, dense *bhanghu
bangune: vi – thicken. *bhanghu+ne
banguvake: vt – thicken. bangvak
banguvakej: n – thickening
banhuzd: n – word-cache, vocabulary, etc. *bhan + *kuzdh
banmil: aj – word-gentle. *bhan+mi+l
bannogun: aj – wordnaked, direct, unadorned *bhan+*nogwen
banta: vi – “give word,” speak, respond *bhan+*da
banthurvist: n – (word) morphology *bhan+*twer+*weid+ti
banvag: aj – wordless, nonverbal *bhan+wa+k
banvagast: n – wordlessness
bard: n – beard *bhardha
bardag: n – barber
bardvag: aj – young, beardless, boy, adolescent
barft: n – stuffing
barve: vt – cram, stuff, fill *bhargw?
bas*: lw/n – bus
bas: n – kiss. v. elpe/elft
base*: vt – kiss
bast: n – appearance. *bhas+ti
bastmindi: aj – self-conscious, vain
bav: v – amuse, appeal *bhou
bazake: vt – manifest, make appear
baze: vi – show, appear *bha-s-
be nuk: av – until now, yet, still
be: pp – toward, to *obh(e)
bebere: vt – bring, fetch *bhe+bher
bebird: n – bringing. *bhe+bhr+ti
bedeze: v – increase, add, supplement
bedift: n – affix(ation). *bhe+dhigw+ti
bedive: vt – affix, attach *bhe+dhigw
befi: pp – onto
begest: n – adhering, tenacity *bhe+ghes+ti
begesti: aj – adhesive, tenacious *bhe+ghes+ti+jo
begeze: vt – adhere. V. beklije. *bhe+ghes
begund: n – attack
begundi: aj – aggressive
begune: vt – attack, take offensive *bhe+ghwen
beht: n – flight, running
beklid: n – adhering. *bhe+gli+ti
beklije: v – adhere, stick to. V. begez
bekove: vt – answer, respond, reply *bhe+gow
bekud: n – answer, response, reply *bhe+gow+ti
bekume: vi – come to, aproach, arrive *bhe+gum
bekund: n – arrival
beleb: n – propensity, tendency
belebe: vt – tend (to), prefer
beleft: n – tending, preferring
belg: n – sack, belly *bhelgh
ben: pp – into *bhe+en
bende: vt – tie, bind *bhendh
bender: aj – related, relative *bhendhero
benzin: n – gas, petrol, benzene
berake: vt – burden, load. beroje: burden
berakej: n – burdening
berduj: aj – portable. *bher+tewjo
bere: vt – carry. *bher
berek: n – birch. berk *bhereg
berem-: n – edge, border. brem *bhrem
berenk/branke: v – break
bergduj: aj – defensible. *bhregh+tewjo
berge: v – protect, defend *bhergh
berv/bruje: v – boil, seethe, ferment *bherw
best: n – touching. *bhes+ti
best: n – touching, rubbing
besti: aj – tangent
betige: vt – refer to, indicate
betuge: vt – attract, pull toward
betuht: n – attraction
bev aban i be ro: backwards and forwards
bevake: vt – put to flight
beve: vi – run *bhegw
bevend: n – runner
bezduj: aj – tangible
beze: vt – touch, rub *bhes
bezer: aj – tangible, palpable
bezrast: aj – tangibility
bide: v – believe, trust *bheidh
bijake: vt – frighten
bije: vt – fear *bhi
bim: aj – frightening, fearful
binde: vi – split. *bhendh
bing: n – heap, pile *bhng
bingake: vt – heap, pile
bingne: vi – heap, pile, accumulates
binst: n – splitting
biologja: n – biology. V. gurvist, kivodvist
bir: n – son;child *bher
bird: n – carrying, portage
birht: n – protection, defense
birhti: aj – defensive, protective
birvag: aj – sonless, without an heir
bist: n – believing, trusting
bisti: aj – trustful, believing
biz: n – sand, powder. s. bez
bled: n – swelling, pride
bleje: vi – swell, blow *bhel, bhle
blem: n – swelling, pride
blik: n – streak, flash
blike: v – streak, flash *bhlig
blin: aj – pale
blinake: vt – make pale
blinakej: n – making pale
blinne: vi – become pale
bloz: n – flower. *bhlos
blozban: n – flattery, eloquence
bod: n – striking, beating
boje: vt – strike, beat *bho
bolg: n – bag, sack, stomach. belg *bhelgh
bolgkovend: n – ventriloquist
bolgkud: n – ventriloquism
boli: n – flower, leaf *bholjom
bolirud: n – leaf-fall, autumn
bolv: v – swear, hurt. *bholu-
borv: aj – unfriendly, curt, gruff *bhorgwos
borvast: n – curtness, gruffness
boz: aj – naked, bare. nogun *bhosos
bozake: vt – bare sth, make naked
bozroti: aj – openhearted. V. rotboz
brad: n – brother. *bhrater
bradbir: n – nephew, brother's son
braks: v – crackle
brat: v – celebrate. *bhrad-
breg: aj – high, prominent. bregu *bhrgh(u)
bregake: vt – heighten, make high
bregne: vi – become high, rise, ascend
brem: n – roar
breme: v – roar *bhrem
breze: v – hasten, hurry *bhres
brid: n – rubbing, scraping
bridal: n – scraper
brije: v – rub, scrape *bhrei. Var. brive, brift.
brist: n – speed, haste
bristi: aj – speedy, hasty
brizu: aj – fast. *bhrsu
brizvake: vt – hurry sth
brom: n – roar *bhrem
bron: n – burden. *bher
brong: v – suffer, endure
bru: n – brow. *bhruw
brud: n – boiling, seething, fermenting
brun: aj – brown. *bhru-n-
brunake: vt – brown s.t.
brunne: vi – become brown
brur, brul: n – spring, source
brust: n – sprout, thicket
bud: n – existence. *bhuti
budake: vt – wake s.o. *bheudh + ag
bude: v – awake *bheudh
budhugel: n – wheel of existence *bheudh + kwekwlom
bug: n – bend, bow *bheugh
buge: v – bend, bow *bheugh
buht: n – bending, bowing *bheugh + ti
buje: v – exist *bhu
buke: v – run, flee *bheug
bukel: aj – flighty, timid
bund: n – bottom. buden *bhudmen, bhund
bundvag: aj – abyss, bottomless *bhudmen, bhund + eu/wa + k
burht: n – using, enjoying *bhrug + t
buri: n – storm. v dur
burk: n – use *bhrug
burkduj: aj – usable, utile
burke: v – use, enjoy. s nut
burki: aj – useful. *bhrug + i/jo
burkvag: aj – useless. *bhrug + eu/wa + k
bust: n – pocket, pouch *bhusti
bust: n – waking. *bheudh + t

-D-
[Back]
dal: n – flower, bloom *dhal
dan: n – river *dhan
Danmark: n – Denmark
Danmarkag: n – Danish person
Dansktingu/Dantingu: n – Danish language
dapar: n – ruler, leader *dhabr-
de: conj./interj. – so, then, therefore
dele: v – suck. V. also baby, child
derdel: n – support, prop, stay
dere: v – hold, support *dher
derge: v – hold
derzake: vt – embolden tr
derze: v – dare, risk *dhers
derzu: aj – bold. *dhrsu
dest: n – placing, putting
dev: v – burn *dhegwh
dever: n – ash(es). *dhegwhr
deze: v – place, put *dhes. v. doz
did: n – perception, understanding *dhiti
didi: aj – perceptive, understanding
diduj: aj – perceptible, intelligible
didvag: aj – dull, unalert, oblivious
dift: n – fixing, sticking
diht: n – making, shaping
dije: v – perceive. *dhi; understand
dil: pp – for/on behalf of/in order to *dhel
dildest: n – substitution
dildeze: v – substitute, put for
dilkove: v – advocate
dilkovend: n – advocate
dilkud: n – advocacy
dilnom: n – pronoun
dilstad: n – substitution
dilstajake: vt – substitute
dilstaje: vi – substitute
dilurht: n – agency, representation
dilurke: v – work on behalf of, serve as agent
dilurkend: n – agent, representative
dinge: v – shape, mold, knead. dig *dheigh
dird: n – support
dirht: n – holding, support
dirst: n – boldness, audacity, daring
diru: aj – intelligent, perceptive *dhi + ru
dirust: n – intelligence, perception. dirvost
dive: v – fix, stick *dhigw
Doits(land)ag: n – German person
Doitsland/Doitsmerek: n – Germany
Doitstingu: n – German language
doktor: n – doctor. v. medikinag
dol i dol: av – little by little, piece by piece
dol: n – piece, part *dholis
dolgaft: n – sharing
dolgambe: v – share
doli: aj – partial
doltad: n – sharing, distribution
doltaje: v – distribute, share
dove: v – choke, die. V. dud, doft
doz: n – place, position. < deze
dozi: aj – local
drend, drind: n – humming, whining
drene: v – hum, whine, buzz
drust: n – falling, breaking, injury
druze: v – fall, injure, deceive, break *dhru-s
dud: n – choking, dying
dugake: vt – adjust, harmonize
duge: v – be fit, appropriate, proper *dheugh
duht: n – fitness, appropriateness
duhti: aj – appropriate, fitting
duj: sfx – suffix forming “gerundives” *twiyo/tewyo. -dvi
dum: n – smoke *dhum
dumake: vt – fumigate, smoke s.t.
dumar/dumbre: aj – gray, smoky
dume: vi – smoke.V. fi/fo tha dum
dun: n – sound *dhun
dund: n – sounding
dune: v – sound
dunmeglake: v – amplify, “turn up”
dunskrift: n – sonogram
dunt: aj – blind, dull, obscure
duntake: vt – dull sth, obscure
duntast: n – obscurity, blindness
dunvag: aj – soundless
dur: n – door, entrance *dhwer
durag: n – doorman
durk(el): n – fork, branch
duvder: n – daughter. *dhugater, dhukter
duz: n – breath, spirit, steam, vapor
duze: v – breathe. *dhus
duzvag: aj – breathless

-E-
[Back]
e: pn – he/she/this. V. o
ebe: v – reach, attain (to) + be. V. ab, abi
eber: n – wild pig, boar *eper
ed: pp – beyond, ultra-. prefix. V. also et- *eti
edbidend: aj – over-trusting
edduni: aj – noisy
ede: v – burn
edest: n – overeating, gluttony
edesti: aj – gluttonous
edfeve: v – overcook
edfu: aj – too small, miniscule, minute
edgrede: v – overstep, exceed
edgrest: aj – exceeding
edgut: n – overflow (from pouring). edgust
edgute: v – overflow (from pouring)
edkive: v – survive
edkivod: n – survival
edkor: aj – overproud, arrogant
edmeder: n – excess
edmedri: aj – excessive
edmirgu: aj – abrupt, too short
ednutun: aj – over-used, exhausted, used up
edri: aj – precious
edridi: aj – precious, over-dear
edroi: n – high price, over-price
edrust: n – permafrost
edruze: v – freeze up, completely freeze
edsad: aj – jaded, disgusted with excess
edseneg: aj – ancient
edskuni: aj – conspicuous, obvious
edsom: aj – identical
edsperun: aj – dispersed, spread out
edsrud: n – overflow, flood
edsruje: v – overflow (from)
edsuz: aj – parched, very dry
edsuzakun: aj – dehydrated
edterge: v – perceive, discern
edtorg: n – discernment, perception
edtorgi: aj – discerning, perceptive
edurht: n – overwork, overtime
eger: n – lake *eghero
egu: n – horse. also, ev *ekwo
egugundag: n – cavalry(man). evgundaz
eje: vi – go. je
ej mir: expr – (may it) go well
ejen: n – morning;tomorrow
ejenhand: n – matins, morningsong
ejenmiz: n – breakfast
ekleze: n – church, assembly
el: ab/aj – electronic, e-(mail, etc.)
elbrev: email. V. elpost
elektroni*: lw/aj – electronic
elft: n – kissing
elpe: v – kiss
elpost: n – email
Embenmenez: n – November
emven: n – nine
emventegim: n – ninety
en: n – one *oino
enake: vt – unite, unify
enakej: n – uniting, unification
Enakun Merke: n – United Nations; E.M.
enast: n – unity, oneness
enez: n – burden. *onos, ones-
enezi: aj – burdensome
Engelag: n – English person
Engeli: aj – English
Engelmerek: n –England
Engeltingu: n – English language
Enmenez: n – March
enoht: n – tonight;this night
ensnubast: n – monogamy
ensnubi: aj – monogamous
Entin: n – Monday
entivast: n – monotheism
entivi: aj – monotheistic
entu: av – once, one time
enzjenir*: n – engineer
erdu: aj – straight, upright *rdhw
erduj: aj – separable, divisible
erduvake: vt – straighten. -ovak
ere: v – separate, divide
ered: n – half, side
eredi: aj – lateral, half-, semi-
erem: aj – separate, apart, distinct
eremake: vt – distinguish
eremakej: n – distinction
eremne: vi – become separate, distinct
erev: n – evening. erku/ereku. V. revez *(e)regwos
erevhand: n – vespers, evensong
erevmiz: n – supper (dinner)
erevov: n – swallow (bird)
eri: av – early.. *airi
erikenun: aj
premature, early-born
erve: v – radiate, beam *erkw. orv
ervod: n – radiance, glory
erz/erez: n – dew, wet
Espanja: n – Spain
Espanjag: n – Spanish person
Espanjatingu: n – Spanish language
est: n – eating
etduj: aj – edible
ete: vt – eat *ed
etin: n – today;this day
ev: n – horse. *ekwo
ev: n – long life. aiv ev-. *aju
ev: p – I [old pronoun]
eve: v – lack, want *eu
even: n – air *awer/n
evend: n – beggar. evets
evengundag: n – airman
evenhori: n – air force
evenlengu: aj – light as air
evenmezgi: aj – air-brained, stupid
evennav: n – hovercraft
evenpost: n – airmail
evensuzak (-thorzak): vt – air-dry
evenvag: aj – airless, stuffy
Evgen: n – Eugene
evi: aj – lasting, long-lived *aiwi
evni: aj – airy
evropa(j)i, evropi: aj
European
evropa: n
Europe
ez: n – metal. aiz *ajes
ezen: n – blood *esen/r
ezenruder: aj – bloodred
ezenvag: aj – bloodless, pale, lifeless
ezi: aj – metallic
ezni: aj – bloody
ezun: n – autumn. *esun
ezuni: aj – autumnal

-F-
[Back]
fadake: vt – open
faden: aj – open. *pateno
fadenbranke: v – break open
fader: n – father. *pater
fadne: vi – open
fadri: aj – paternal, fatherly
fag/fange: v – hold, grasp
faje: vt – protect, feed *pa
falm: n – hand, palm *palm
falmskud: n – glove. V. gerzskud
falt: n – coat, jacket *palto
fande: v – open, wide, spread
fant: aj – backwards, reversed *?
fantake: vt – reverse
fast: aj – fixed, immovable. V. divun
fastake: vt – fix sth, fasten
fastroi: n – fixed price. divunroi
fed: n – flight *pet
fedake: vt – launch, put to flight
fedakej: n – launching (plane)
fede: v – fly
fedzen: n – feather, wing *petsna
feft: n – cooking. *pekw
fefthod: n – kitchen
fel: aj – many. menge *pel/pol
fengi: n – five *penkwe
fengitegim: n – fifty. fenktegim
ferge: vt – ask. firht, forog, ferged *perk
fergi: aj – inquisitive, interrogatory
fergun: n – mountain. *perkwunjo
fergunag: n – mountaineer
ferzen: n – heel. *persna
fesev: v – track < *pedseku
feve: v – cook, bake *pekw
fevem: n – cake, bread V. fov
fevend: n – cook, chef
fi thergi: pp – athwart, across. position
fi tilhti: pp – along, during, while
fi: pp – on befi. isfi *epi
fid: n – white, dawn *kuid
fije: v – dislike, hate. fik/g
fikil: aj – colored, spotted *poikil-
Filip: n – Phil(ip)
film: n – film, movie
fink: n – color fi(n)ge
finke: v – color
finkvag: aj – colorless
fir: pp – through. *peri
firbast: n – transparency
fird: n – ford, crossing; a – first *prtos
firgaft: n – retention
firgambe: v – retain
firht: n – question *perk-ti
firhti: aj – inquisitive, interrogatory
firhtkonem: n – question mark
firli: n – wren, chickadee
firmeder: n – diameter
firsot: n – through/connecting path
firtande*: v – pierce, puncture (with teeth)
firthiht: n – piercing, puncturing
firthike*: v – pierce, puncture
fo/fiduj: aj – potable, drinkable
fo/fije: v – drink. – tha dum smoke
fo: pp – off, away *apo
fobere: v – carry away, remove
fobest: n – erasure
fobeze: v – erase, rub away
fobird: n – removal, deportation
fobor: n – removal
foboz: n – eraser
fobrid: n – abrasion, rubbing off
fobridpapir: n – sandpaper
fobrije: v – scrape off, abrade
fobuge: v – deflect, parry
fobuht: n – deflection, parrying
fod: a – full by drinking; drunk (not necessarily alcoholic)
fodel: n – cup *potlom
fodest: n – displacement
fodeze: v – displace, put off/away
fodlake: v – cup (e.g., the hands)
foduj: aj – drinkable, potable
fogund: n – defense
fogune: v – defend, fight off
foheregake*: v – decapitate
fohuld: n – dispelling, refusing
fohule: v – dispel, turn away, refuse
fokove: v – call off, away, repeal
fokud: n – calling away
fold: n – buying, selling
fold: n – coat, cloak
fole: v – buy, sell
fom: n – cover
fomerekake*: v – exile s.o.
fomereke*: v – emigrate
fon: aj – satiated, drunk
fonake: vt – intoxicate, satiate with drink
fonast: n – intoxication
fonift: n – cleansing;deflection
fonive: v – bend away, deflect
fonive: v – wash off, cleanse
foorgake*: v – castrate
for(o)g: n – pig. s. su- *porko
for: n – crossing
fordthur: n – original form
form/ford: aj
first
formet: n – first meal, breakfast
foskid: n – separation
foskije: v – separate
fosruje: v – flow off, drain away
fosrum: aj – off-flow, drain issrum
fosruvake: vt – drain s.t. off
fosta(je)nd: aj – distant, far
fostajake: vt – defer s.t., put s.t. aside
fostaje: v – desist, stand off, away, defer (to)
fosund/fodund: n – dissonance
fosvist: n – sweating off
fosvite: v – sweat off, away
fot: n – foot *ped/pod
fotgundag: n – infantry(man)
fothene: v – stretch away, distend
fothind: n – distending
fothust: n – repulsion
fothute: v – repel
fotid: n – schism, separation
fotije: v – divide off, separate off
fotskud: n – shoe, boot
fotuge: v – distract, pull away
fotuht: n – distraction
foungi*: aj – unusual, extraordinary
fov: aj – cooked, ripe
fovege: v – remove, carry off/away
foveht: n – removal
fovest: n – undressing
foveze: vt – undress. V. viveze
Frans: n – France< p> Fransag: n – French person
Franstingu: n – French language
fu: aj – small, little *pew
fud: aj – rotten. *put
fudast, fust: n – rottenness
fudne: vi – rot
fug: n – fist. fuk? *pu(n)g/puk
fuge: v – punch, jab, poke
fun: aj – clean, pure *pu-n
funake: vt – cleanse, purify
funakej: n – purification
funast: n – purity, cleanness
fust: n – rottenness. v. fudast
fuvake: vt – reduce, minimize
fuvakej: n – reduction, minimization
fuvast: n – smallness, littleness

-G-
[Back]
gaft: n – holdings, possession *ghabh-ti
gambe/gabe: v – take, hold, carry *ghabh
ganz: n – goose, swan *ghans
gast: n – rod, pole *ghast/ghazd
gaz*: lw/n – gas
gazet*: lw/n – newspaper. *Fr gazette
gelen: aj – green, yellow. glor
gelenne: vi – become green (leaves)
gelenurt: n – carrot. gelnurt
gelme: v – understand *?
gerz: n – hand *ghers
gerzfu: aj – stingy
gerzhurun: aj – hand-made
gerzlon: aj – hand-ful, busy, occupied
gerznofag: n – manual control
gerzskrift: n – manuscript, handwriting
gerzskud: n – glove
gerzurht: n – handwork, handicraft
gest: n – sticking
geze: v – stick *ghes
gezel kurde, kurne: expr
(a) thousand thanks
gezel: n – thousand. *gheslo
gezeld: aj – thousandth
gid: n – urging *ghi
gije: vt – urge, stir, move
gil: n – ravine, chasm *ghei-l-
gim: n – winter *ghima
Gimboli: n – winterflower;name
gimburi/gimdur: n – winterstorm
gimer: aj – wintry
gimfast: aj – winterbound. -divun
gimi: aj – wintry, winter-
gimrust: n – deep freeze
gine: v – yawn, gape *ghei-n-
gir: aj – without, unless *ghei-r
girake: vt – deprive sb
girakej: n – deprivation
girast: n – deprivation
giz(tin): n – yesterday. *ghjes
gizel: n – vein
gizi: aj – recent, yesterday-
gizmindi: aj – nostalgic, reminiscent
giznoht: n – last night
gled: n – hail
glede: vi – (it) hails. O glede. (geld)
glon: ?
glor: aj – yellow, green
glorne: vi – becomes yellow, green
glun: v – joke, tease. *ghleu-
gluz: n – turtle
go: pp – of; possess. particle
golge: v – swallow
gord: n – enclosure, garden; wall? *ghord/to
gost: n – guest, stranger *ghosti
gostrid: n – hospitality
gostridi: aj – hospitable
gred: n – step, rank *ghradh
grede: vt – step, grade
grest: n – stepping, ranking
grist: n – protrusion. V. rogrist
griz: n – edge
grizake: vt – stick s.t. out
grize: vi – protrude. *ghrs
grom: n – rumble
grond: n – beam;bar
grup*: lw/n – group
grut: aj/n
coarse; meal, sand *ghreu
gud: n – calling, summons, proclamation
guje: vt – call *ghu
gul: n – juice, sap, pus *gheu-l-
guli: aj – juicy, sappy
gumal: n
earth, world, land
gund: n – battle, war *ghwnti
gundag: n – warrior, soldier
gundnav: n – warship, battleship
gune: vt – fight. *ghwen
gur: n – wild animal, beast *ghweri
guri: aj – animal, wild, bestial
gurm: aj – warm, hot *ghwermo
gurmake: vt – heat sth/sb
gurmast: n – heat, warmth
gurmod: n – summer, heat
gurn, gorn: n – oven, stove *ghworno
gurvist: n – biology
gust: n – pouring
gut: n – pour, cast (foundry)
gute: vt – pour *gheud

-H-
[Back]
had: n – desire, wish *ka-t
hadar: n – fence, pen *katar-
hadeft: n – attainment of desire *ka-t + ep-ti
hadkest: n – extinction of desire
hadrud: n – disappointment, collapse of desire
hadvag: aj – dispassionate, desireless
hadvagast: n – dispassion;apathy; detachment
hagal: n – stone. hamen *kaghlo
hagli: aj – stony. *kaghlo
haje: vt – desire, wish, will
hald: n – slope, incline *kaltos
ham: n – desire, wish *ka-m
hamb: n – ankle, joint *kamp-
han: n – song. *kan
hanag: n – singer
hand: n – song, singing *kan-ti
hander: n – moth, insect *kandhvros
handker: n – choir
handov: n – songbird. *kan + t + owi
hane: vt – sing *kan
har: n – dear, friend. (used in salutations like dear, cher, etc.) *ka-r
harg: n – fort; prison, pen. *karker
harzag: n – rock. *karsik-
hazan: aj, n – gray, pale, rabbit *kasn
hed: n – forest, woods. Tiruhed *koit-
hedur: n – four;hudur *kwetwor
hedurd: aj – fourth. *kwetwor+t
Hedurmenez: n – June
hedurtegim: n – forty
Hedurtin: n – Thursday
heg: aj – blind *kajko
hegake: vt – blind sb *kajk + ag-
hegast: n – blindness
heglon: aj – blind-full, dead drunk *kajko + plon
helake: vt – finish s.t.
held: n – completion, end
heldspir: aj – ending successfully
heldvag: aj – endless, without completion
hele: v – complete, finish *kail
heme: n – shirt *kem
henake: vt – initiate. *ken + ag
henakej: n – initiation
hend: n – beginning. *ken-t
hender: n – problem
hene: v – begin *ken
henend: n – beginner. *ken + ent-
hengag: n – star, pentacle *penkwe + a/ok
hengel: v – hesitate, dither. *kenk-l-
Hengimenez: n – July
Hengitin: n – Friday
hereg: n – head;leader, chief *kr
heren: n – horn *krn
heru/herve: n – deer, stag *kerwo
heve: v – dwell, reside *keiw-
hevel: aj – alone. hev
hever: n – north (wind). Hur *keu(e)r
hevervoz: n – northeast. Vozhever
Hevramerika: n – North America
Hevror: n – February
hevruger: n – northwest. ugerhever
hi: pn – who *kwi-
hiber: aj – quick, violent. *kibhr-
hibrast: n – quickness, violence
hije: vt – launch, fire, shoot, send off. *ki-
hil: n – moment, hour. V. vil *kweila
hili: aj – momentary, hourly
hind: n – hundred. *kmtom
hinddol: n – percent. seft hinddol 7%
hir: n – top, crest *kr
hiriv: n – crow
hirne: v – buy. *krine-
hirnod: n – buying, purchase
hist (1): n – box, chest *kist-i-
hist (2): n – falling. *kid + ti
hitake: vt – fell;bring down *kid + ag
hite: v – fall. *keid
hiv: aj – gray, dark. *kiw
hivake: vt – darken s.t.
hivast: n – grayness, darkness
hivne: vi – darken
hiz: n – matter, problem, concern (coll.). nen hiz “no problem”
hizig: n – forearm, hip
hobuk: n – eagle, hawk *kobug-
hod: n – room, chamber *keu/kou + t. Also hor.
holb: n – side, part
holen: n – hill, mountain *kolno
holg: v – gurgle, choke, hack
holni: aj – mountainous, hilly
holt: n – log, beam
hom: av – together, with *kom
hom vil (be naz): expr – if we had time; lit., with time to us
homake: vt – assemble, gather *kom + ag
hommed: n – comparing, measuring together *kom + me
hommedvag: aj – incomparable, without comparison
hommeje: v – compare, measure together
homurht: n – collaboration, cooperation
homurke: v – collaborate, cooperate *kom + werg
hondest: n – composing, putting together
hondeze: v – put together, compose *kom + dhes
hongest: n – cohesion/herence
hongeze: v – cohere. V. honklije *kom + ghes
honjuhti: aj – conjoined; writing preposition with noun as one word
honkindi: aj – cognate, affiliated *kom + gen
honklid: n – cohesion
honklije: v – cohere. *kom + gli
honkove: v – converse. *kom + gow
honkud: n – colloquium, conversation, dialog *kom +gow-t
honkume: v – convene, assemble *kom + gum
honkund: n – convention, assembly
honsotag: n – companion, fellow traveler *kom + sod
honthust: n – compression
honthute: vt – compress. *kom + tud
hontuge: v – contract, pull together *kom + duk
hontuht: n – contraction. *kom + duk-ti
hori: n – army. V. gundaz *koryo
horov: n – crow *Lat. corvus
huber: aj – bright, radiant holy
hubez: n – steam, vapor. hub *kwepes
hubzi: aj – steamy, vaporous
hude: v – cover, conceal. v hust *keudh
hugel: n – wheel, circle *kwekwlom
hugli: aj – circular, rotary
huj: n – rest, quiet *kwei
huje: vi – rest, take respite, take a break
hulab, holab: n – gulf, bay *kolp-
hule: v – turn *kwel
huli: aj – what kind? *kwo-li
humb: n – swamp, bog
hun: n – what. *kw-
hunt: aj – stocky, sturdy
hurake: vt – compel
hurb: n – body *kwrepes
hurbi: aj – corporeal, bodily
hurbtug: n – physical attraction, sex appeal
hurbvag: aj – incorporeal, insubstantial, bodiless
hurd: n – doing, making
hurdban: n – verb
hurdbanak: v – make into a verb
hure: v – make, do. hurne *kwer
hurg: n – ring *krung
hurge: v – circle, ring, surround
huri: n – dish, shell, bowl
huruger*: n – northwest. hevruger
hurvoz*: n – northeast. V. hevervoz
hust: n – concealment
hut: aj – false
hutu: av – when *kwo, du
huz: av – where
huzd: n – hollow; vagina *kusdh-

-I-
[Back]
i.a.: ab – and others, et cetera
i: cj – and. V. ok
id: aj – far *itos
idake: vt – remove, distance
iden: n – journey. *iten
idenag, idnag: n – traveller, wanderer
idne: vi – travel, journey
idskrift: n – telegraph
ige: v – own, possess
igu: aj – possessive, territorial, etc.
igun: n – liver. yegun
imv: n – butter, grease, oil
inde: v – burn.
indevropa(j)i: Indo-european
inst: n – burning. *i(n)dh-ti
irake: vt – raise. V. utirak
ird: n – rising
ire: vi – rise
is/z: pp – out of
iskove: vt – call out/evoke/summon, express, exclaim
iskud: n – summoning, evocation, exclamation
iskumake: vt – bring out, send out
iskume: vi – exit, come out
iskund: n – exiting
issud: n – pressing out, extrusion
issuje: vt – press out, squeeze out
isthust: n – pressing out, expel
isthute: vt – press out. V. stut
istig: vi – seem, appear
istorja: n – history
istuge: n – extractor
istuge: vt – extract
istuht: n – extraction
iven: aj – young. *yuwen, yun-
ivenake: vt – rejuvenate. anivenak; ivnak
ivenast: n – youth. ivnost
izand (1): n – bloom, flower out
izand (2): n – exhaling
izane: vt – exhale
izanst: n – flowering, prime of life
izbere: v – carry out, export
izbird: n – export
izgust: n – pouring out
izgute: v – pour out
izostake*: vt – bone (a fish)

-J-
[Back]
jaki: aj – holy
janki: aj – holy
Janvar: n – January
jebe: v – copulate *yebh
Jedel: n – spear. *yetlo
jedelfast: aj – impaled, stuck on a spear, spitted
jeft: n – coition. *yebh-ti
jeku: n – vigor, youth *yegw
Jermi: n – name
jest: n – fermentation
jeze: v – ferment. iz *yes
Jezu: n – Jesus
job: n – coitor, mate *yebh
Josef: n – name
Jovan: n – name
jukem: n – joint, link *yug
Juli: n – July
Jun: n – June
junk/juke: v – join, yoke *yug
juz: n – juice, liquid *yus

-K-
[Back]
k.: ab/aj – female, feminine (< kuni)
kafe: n – coffee
kai/kije: v – sing
kar*: lw/n – car
Katrin: n – name
kave: v – rejoice. *gaw
kavri: aj – rejoicing, proud
ked: n – pitch, tar *gwetu
kel: aj – cold, stiff *gel
kelake: vt – chill, stiffen so/sth
kelhist: n – fridge
kemer: n – son in law
kemija: n – chemistry. V. kemika
kemika: n – chemistry. V. kemija
kemv: n – knee. kenv/knu
kemvdeze: vi – kneel
kenake: vt – give birth, engender
kene: v – be born *gen
kenez: n – kind, race, kindred
kenezi: aj – racial, genetic, natal
ker: n – gathering, assembly *gre, ger
kere: v – gather
kest: n – extinguishing, putting out
keve: v – chew
keze: v – extinguish, put out *gwes
kid: n – song. V. hand
kidfast: aj – enchanted, bewitched
kike: v – peep, chirp
kiknake: v – inform
kikne: v – know. kinke, kone
kiknod: n – knowledge
kind: n – birth
kindi: aj – natal, birth-
kindnogun: aj – birthnaked, stark naked
kindtin: n – birthday
kird: n – gathering, assembly
kit: v – tickle *gid
kiv: aj – alive *gwiwo
kivake: vt – animate;revive. ankivak
kivod: n – life
kivodvag: aj – inanimate, lifeless
kivodvist: n – biology. V. biologja, gurvist
klas*: lw/n – class
klid: n – sticking
klije: v – stick. *ghlei
klog: n – barb, point
klom: n – ball, clump, glob *ghlom
klub: n – peel *gleubh
klube: v – split, peel
kluft: n – split, peeling
koje: v – take pride in + be
kolb: n – womb *gwelbh. kulb.
kolor: n – ice. kolod
komb: n – peg, tooth *gombh
konake: vt – inform
konakej: n – information-
kond: n – knowledge, knowing
kondmin: aj – informed, knowledgable
kone: v – know. kikne. *(gi)gno
konem: n – sign, symbol
konemmin: aj – significant, symbolic
kor: aj – proud *gau-r
korake: vt – make proud
kove: v – speak, say *gew/gow
kovez: n – speaker
kran: n – grain, corn, seed *gran
krebe: v – scratch, carve, dig *gerbh
kreft: n – scratching, digging
krez: n – bite, morsel, piece *gwreso
Krist : n – Christ
Kristkind: n – Christmas
Kristof: n – name
krude: v – squeeze. *greut
krun: aj – heavy. *gru-n
krunake: vt – make heavy
krunast: n – heaviness, weight, gravity
krunne: vi – weigh down, be heavy
krunroti: aj – despondent, depressed
ku: n – cow. kov *gwow
kud: n – speech, talk
kuld: n – throwing
kule: v – throw *gwel
kumake: vt – fetch, bring
kume: v – come *gwem
kumiz/rov: n – beef
kun: n – woman *guna
kund: n – coming
kuni: aj – feminine, womanly
kurag: aj – hungry. *gwor
kuragake: vt – make hungry
kuragakej: n – making hungry
kuragast: n – hunger
kuragne: vi – become/get hungry
kurde: n – thanks (pl.). kurne
kurne: v – thank. *grn
kust: n – taste, choice, selection, decision
kuze: v – choose, taste, decide *geus

-L- [Back]
lab: n – side * ?
labi: aj – lateral
lad: aj – spread out, flat
ladake: vt – flatten/spread sth/sb
ladakej: n – flattening, spreading
ladal: n – plain, flatland
ladne: vi – flatten
ladreg: n – brick. *Lat. later; latericius
lal: n – babble, chatter
lale: v – babble, chatter
lamp*: lw/n – lamp, lantern
lant/lat: aj – tired
lantake: vt – tire sth/sb
lastik: n – rubber; elastic
lastiki: aj – elastic
latag: n – drain, ditch, mud
lav: n – key *klawi
lavag: n – doorman, concierge
lebe: v – steal *klep
lef: n – bread
left: n – theft
legake: vt – lay st
lege: v – lie (down) *legh
leht: n – collection, gathering
leke: v – gather, collect *leg
lektrik: n – electricity
lektriki: aj – electric
len: av – completely, fully, vb prefix
lenbranke: v – shatter
lend: aj – soft, pliable, flexible
lendake: vt – soften, make pliant
lendne: vi – soften
lenfole: v – buy/sell out
lengu: aj – light
lengust: n – lightness
lenguvake: vt – lighten so/sth
lenk: n – bend
lenke: v – bend
lenruze: v – freeze through, up
lensege: v – conquer
lensuzne: vi – dry up/out
lesk: aj – weak, feeble
li(ne): v – lean, rest on + ur, fi, u, etc. *klei-n-
lid: n – slope, incline
like: v – bind, tie *leig
limv: vt – leave, abandon, yield, give up
lind: n – back? *lendhwos
lind: n – pasture, uncultivated field
linge: v – lick.. *leigh
list: n – border, band
lit: n – play *leid
liti: aj – playful
litiz: n – player
live: v – leave (from); remain *leikw
lob: n – thief, robber
loder: n – soap
log: n – place, position. *leuk-
logen: n – bed
logfast: aj – entrenched, unyielding
logi: aj – situational, positional
lon: aj – full *pleno
lonake: vt – fill
lonast: n – fullness
lonne: vi – become full
lubake: vt – enamor, seduce, endear
lube: v – love, desire. *leubh
luboz: n – slime. *slub-
lud: n – hearing
lude: v – close.. *kludh
luder: aj – free.. *leudhr-
ludker: n – audience
ludrake: vt – liberate
ludrakej: n – liberation
ludrast: n – freedom, liberty
ludruldi, ludrulend: aj – freewilled, voluntary
luft: n – desire, love
lugag: n – liar
luge: v – lie, deceive. *leugh
luje: v – listen, hear. *kleu
lukovag: n – gossiper, rumormonger
lukove: v – hear tell
lukud: n – hearsay, rumor, gossip
lun: n – hip. *klun, kleu-
lunt: aj – pure, chaste
lur: aj – famous
lurast: n – fame
lurt: aj – clumsy
lust: n – closing
luvez: n – fame, report, repute. Levez. *klewo
luvezi: aj – famous
luz: aj – empty.. *lousos
luz: n – louse.. *lus-
luzake: vt – empty so/sth
luzi: aj – lousy
luznag: n – lamplighter
luzne: n – light, lamp

-M- [Back]
ma: av – also??
mader: n – mother. *mater
Maj: n – May
manke: v – knead
Marje: n – name
Mars: n – March
Martin: n – name
masjin*: lw/n – machine. Var. maxin
mast: n – pole, rod
Matei: n – Matthew
matematika: lw/n – mathematics. V. rimvist
mav: youth;young person *makwi
mavrid: n – young love
mazar: n – rash
meb/p: pp – around. *mbhi
mebbage: vt – embrace
meblege: v – lie around, be adjacent to (+ be?)
meblog: n – circumstance, surroundings
mebreske*: v – bind, tie up, rope off
mebsest: n – seige, occupation
mebsete: vt – occupy, besiege
med: n – measurement. *me-ti
medeg: n – middle. (u) medgi *medhyo
medeggredi: aj – midgrade, intermediate. gredmedeg
medegkove: vt – mediate, negotiate
medegmerki: aj – international. -morki
medegstanend: aj – intermediate, neutral
medegtingu: n – interlanguage
medegvil: n – interim. u medegvil = meanwhile
meder: n – measure. *metrom
medik(inag)*: lw/n – medic, doctor
medri: aj – measured
medu: n – honey, sweet. *medhu
medur: aj – honeyed, sweet. *medhuro
meg: cj – but
megel: aj – big. megen. *meghl-, meghn
meglake: vt – amplify, magnify
meje: v – measure.. *mej-
meker: v – praise, exaggerate
mel: aj – sweet.. *mel
melake: vt – sweeten sth/sb
Mele: n – sweet one
melev: aj – silly, foolish, soft, effete
melevni: aj – fresh, ventilated, unstuffy; lit. “sweet-aired”
melgul: n – sweet sap, syrup
men(e)zi: aj – monthly
men: pn – I; tha-men me; meve my
menake: vt – suggest, imply
mene: v – think
menegake: vt – multiply
menez: n – month/moon. menod. *menes-, menot-
menezi: aj – monthly
menge: aj – many/much meneg, fel. *menegh
mengetu: av – often
menod: n – moon.. *menot
menodezen: n – menstruation
menodi: aj – lunar, monthly
menz: n – mind, month, thought
mep: pp – around. variant of meb
mere: v – die.. *mer
merek: n – border, edge. *mereg, merg-, mreg
merez: n – part, portion. *meres
merezi: aj – partial
merz: n – part, portion
merzak: vt – divide, partition, separate
merze: vi – part, separate
merzta: vt – apportion, distribute
meske: v – dip, sink *mezg
met: n – measure. *med-
metez: n – measure
metezi: aj – moderate, measured. metsi
metvag: aj – measureless
meve: aj – my;mine *mew
mezg: n – brain, marrow *mezgh
mift: n – change, transition
miftvag: n – immutable
miftvagast: n – immutability, changelessness
migel: n – cloud, mist *meighl-
migli: aj – cloudy, misty
Mihel: n – name
miht: n – urination, defecation *mikt-
mil: aj – dear, soft, mild
milast: n – dear-, soft-, mildness
milt: aj – soft, tender. *mld-
miltake: vt – soften
miltne: vi – become tender, soft
mind: n – thought. *mnti
mindboz: aj – frank, open, thought-bare
mindbozast: n – candor, frankness
minddift: n – concentration
minddifti, -divun: aj – resolute. V. rotdivun
minddive: v – concentrate, fix thought
mindfast: aj – resolute, determined; obsessed
mindfu: aj – narrow-minded, stingy, petty
mindmin: aj – thoughtful, pensive
mindvag: aj – thoughtless, spontaneous
mindvagast: n – thoughtlessness
minge: v – urinate, defecate
minu: aj – less, small *mei-n-
minune: vi – diminish, become smaller, lesser
minvake: vt – diminish s.t.
mir: aj – good.. *mei-r-
mirake: vt – improve, make good
mirakej: n – improving, improvement
mirbani: aj – of good speech/words. banmir
mirbasti: aj – fine-seeming. bastmir
mird: n – death *mrti
mirdesti: aj – well-positioned, well-placed
mirdezun: aj – well-positioned, well-placed
mirdi: aj – mortal, deadly, fatal
mirdvag: aj – immortal
mirdvagast: n – immortality
mirgu: aj – short. *mrghw
mirgune: vi – shorten, become short
mirgvaivi: aj – short-lived
mirgvake: vt – shorten, abbreviate
mirgvakej: n – abbreviation, shortening (ban-, etc.
mirgvast: n – brevity, shortness
mirhurun: aj – well-made
mirkove: vt – bless, praise
mirkud: n – blessing, praise
mirne: vi – improve, become better
mirnunje: n – improvement
miroti: aj – fragrant
mirst: n – parting, separation
mirthuri: aj – well-formed, proportionate
mirvili: aj – well-timed, opportune
miske: v – mix. Blend.. *misk-
misker: aj – mixed, blended
mit: n – tick
Mite: n – name
miv: n – change. nemivend. *meigw
mivake: vt – change st
mivakej: n – change
mive: vi – change
miz: n – flesh, meat. V. rov. *mems-
mizd: n – hire, pay, reward. *mizdh-
mizde: v – hire, pay, reward
mizvag: aj – meatless, vegetarian
moder: aj – blue
moderne: vi – becomes blue, blues
mogake: vt – enable, empower
mogakej: n – empowering, enabling
moge: v – able, can. *megh, mogh-
mogen: aj – possible
mognast: n – possibility
moht: n – ability, power
mohtvag: aj – powerless, unable
moi: av – more; moi ruder redder
moine: vi – increase, grow
molm: n – dust, powder. *molm-
molme: vt – dust, powder
molmi: aj – dusty, powdery
molt/miltu: aj – V. milt
mon: aj – patient. . *monu
mor: aj – sea, lake. *mori
mord: aj – dead, mortal, a man. *morto-
mordaz ??: n – undertaker
Morkthudenakej: n – National People's Union Reken-
morov: n – sea-bird
mort: aj – sour/bitter/hurt
mortake: vt – make sour, embitter
mortne: vi – become sour, bitter
mosk: n – net
mov: n – sea-gull. (rel. Engl. sea-mew)
movi: aj – dirty, wet
moz: av – soon.. *moks
mozake: vt – expedite, hurry
mud: n – dirt.. *mu-ti
mudne: vi – get dirty
murbiz: n – mortar *mur+biz “wall sand”
muster: n – secret
muz: n – mouse.. *mus

-N- [Back]
n.: ab/aj – male, masculine ( neri)
nad: n – help.. *na-ti
nadvag: aj – unassisted, forlorn
nag/nange: v – enough, reach. nange be-
naje: v – help. ta tha-nad
nav: n – ship, boat. *nau
navaku, navakag: n – sailor
navbrank: n – shipwreck
navgundag: n – sailor, navy officer
navhori: n – navy
navmast: n – mast
navstadal: n – dock, harbor
naz: n – nose.. *nasu
ne: av – no, not.. *ne
nebez: n – cloud.. *nebh-es
nebezi/min: aj – clouded, obscured
nebze: v – obscure
ned/nod: av – down, low. V. ni
neden: pp – under, beneath
nedengrede: v – subordinate
nedengredi: aj – subordinate
nedengrest: n – subordination
nedenskrift: n – signature, underwriting
nedenskrive: v – sign, underwrite
nedenstad: n – substructure, foundation
nedenstanend: aj – inferior
nednast: n – inferiority
nedrake: vt – abase, humiliate
nedri: aj – inferior, low, base
neft: n – nephew, niece, bradbir. *nept
negur: n – kidney. Var. never. *neghw-r
nehurbi: aj – incorporeal, non-physical
nejuk: aj – unpaired, odd (number)
nekond: n – ignorance
nekondi: aj – ignorant
nen: aj – no, not one; nen hiz “no problem”; ne + en “not one”
nepst/nefst: n – obscurity
ner: n – man, person, human. *ner
neri: aj – human, male
nervist: n – anthropology. V. antropologja
nervistag: n – anthropologist
nest: n – return, restoration
net/note: v – tie. *ned
netu: av – never
nev: aj – weak, tired. *neu, nou-
nevake: vt – weaken, fatigue
nevast: n – weakness, fatigue, tiredness
never: n – kidney. v. negur
nevne: vi – weaken, tire, collapse
nez: pn – we, us. niz/naz. viz
neze: v – return, restore. V. ankume. *nes
ni(n)ve: v – ninge. bend/bow. *kni(n)ghw.
ni/niz: pp – down
nift: n – washing
nifthod: n – bathroom, laundry
Nihon: n – Japan
Nihonag: n – Japanese person
Nihontingu: n – Japanese language
nilege: v – lie down, recline
nird: n – manliness, virtus, virility. *nrti
nirud: n – ruin, collapse
niruje: v – collapse
nist: n – nest.. *nest-
nithust: n – depression
nithute: v – depress, push down
nive: v – wash.. *neigw
nivrist: n – derision, mockery
nivrite: v – mock, deride
no: pp – in. beno, izno
nobal: n – navel, hub
nobere: v – import
nobird: n – import
nobled: n – inflation
nobleje: v – inflate
nobugend: aj – concave
nodest: n – insertion
nodeze: v – insert, implant
nodift: n – infix
nodive: v – infix
nofage: v – inhibit, retain, control
nofaht: n – inhibition, retention, control
nogerst*: n – grasping
nogerze*: v – grasp
nogl: n – nail, claw. *noghl-
nogust: n – infusing, pouring in
nogute: v – infuse, pour in
noht: n – night.. *nokti
nohtbudend: aj – nocturnal
nohtmedeg: n, av – midnight
nohtsurt: aj – black as night
nohttolge: aj – nightlong
nohurbake*: v – cause to incarnate
nohurbel*: v – embody, incarnate
noklid: n – inhering, sticking
noklije: v – inhere
nokumake: vt – introduce, bring in
nokumakej: n – introduction
nokume: v – enter
nokun: aj – naked, bare. *nogwn-
nokunake: vt – devastate, lay bare
nokunast: n – nakedness
nokund: n – entry, entering
nom: n – name. bere/deze tha –. *nomen
nomban: n – noun
nombanak: v – nominalize
nombani: aj – nominal
nombere: vi – be named
nombird: n – being named
nomdest: n – naming
nomdeze: vt – name s.o./s.t.
nomerekake*: v – import, settle s.o., colonize
nomereke*: v – immigrate
nomvag: aj – nameless
nonavake*: v – cause to embark
nonave*: v – embark
nonud*: n – embarkation. nonave
nonaft*: n – embarkation. nonave
nospeht: n – introspection. notirht
nospog: n – insight, inner view
nosruje: v – inflow
nosrum: n – inflow. nosrud
nothust: n – impression, imprint, indentation
nothute: v – impress, imprint, push in, indent
notirht: n – insight, introspection
notuge: v – draw in
notuht: n – drawing in
nov: n – corpse. *nou
novebe: v – implicate, involve, weave in
noveft: n – implication, involvement
novite: v – imagine
novist: n – imagination
nuj: aj – new. *nowjo
nujkindi: aj – neonatal, newborn
nujne: vi – become new
nujsnufti: aj – newlywed
nujake: vt – renovate, renew. V. annujak
nuk: av – now
nukake: vt – bring up to date, modernize
nuki: aj – contemporary, modern, current
nurk: aj – idle, still, unoccupied. *ne + wrg-
nust: n – use
nusti: aj – usable, useful
nut: n – use. *nud
nut: pp – with
nutduj: aj – usable, utile
nutdujast: n – usability, utility
nute: v – use
nutvag: aj – useless
nuz: n – snort, sneeze *neus, pneu-
nuze: v – snort, sneeze

-O- [Back]
o: pn – he; she;it. V. on
og: augm. sfx: great, large. V. untog
ogi: n – eye. V. ov. *okw-i
ogilugend: aj – deceptive, illusionary
ogun: n – window. oven. *okwn
oht: n – eight. *oktow
Ohtmenez: n – October
ohtod/v: aj – eighth
ojun: aj – gone, past; ojun vedz “last year”; *oj var. form of eje(?)
okake: vt – cause to grow
okakej: n – augmentation, increase
oke: v – grow. V. auk/uke. *aug, weg
oken: n – fire. dez tha ___ (be ___). *ogni
okendest: n – arson
okenholan: n – volcano
okenholni: aj – volcanic
okni: aj – fiery
olgez: n – wound, abscess. *olk-es-
olve: oil ?
ombe: n – navel. V. nobal. *nobh-l, mbh-
omez: n – arm, shoulder *omesos
on: pn – he she it. sove. V. o
onter: n – smell otim. Ontru. *od-
or: n – hour; hun or = what time? *Lat. hora
orb: n – orphan, bereft. *orbh
orbak: vt – orphan, bereave of parents
ord: a – tall, high *e/oredh
org: n – testicle.. *orghi
orin: n – hawk, eagle. *orn-
ornitologja: n – ornithology. V. ovvist
orv: n – radiance, brilliance, shine. *orkw-
orvi: aj – radiant, brilliant, shining
orz: n – back, rump.. *orsos
ost: n – bone. *osti
osti: aj – bony
ostker: n – skeleton. *osti + ger
ostvag: aj – invertebrate
ot: n – smell, odor, scent. ont(em). *od
ote: v – smell. onte. cf smell & have odor
otel*: lw/n – hotel
otund: n – appetite, hunger. etund. et/ot + un. *ed + *wen
otundi: aj – hungry.
otvag: aj – odorless, unscented
ov: n – bird. ftil. hand-/noht-/uten-. *owi
ov: n – eye. *okw
ov: n – sheep. *owi
ovi: aj – of birds, avian
ovmuz: n – bat, “bird-mouse”
ovvist: n – ornithology
oz: n – mouth. *os
ozel: pot, jug *aukw+sla
ozen: n – ash tree
ozi: aj – oral
ozne: v – harvest

-P- [Back]
pal: aj – strong. V. thur. *bol, bal
palake: vt – strengthen so/sth. v. thurak, abrak
paltrudi: aj – devout. V. thurtrudi
papir*: lw/n – paper
papirroti: aj – “paperhearted,” insincere, weak, superficial
Portugal: Portugal
Portugalag: Portuguese person
Portugaltingu: Portuguese language
post: n – post, mail service
posthist: n – mailbox
proft: n – temptation.
prove: v – tempt. *Lat. probare

-R- [Back]
razd: n – peg. *karsd-
rebe: v – snatch, steal. *rep
red/t: pp – against, contra-, re-. *pre/oti
reddest: n – opposition
reddeze: v – oppose, put against
redgund: n – rebellion, resistance
redgune: v – fight against, rebel, resist
redkove: v – contradict
redkrunast: n – counterweight, balance
redkud: n – contradicting
redstad: n – counterforce, resistance
redstaje: v – resist, oppose
redstam: n – counterforce, resistance
redthust: n – repulsion
redthute: v – repel. resthute, retstut
redtiv: vt – reflect
redvi: n – counterforce
reft: n – snatching, stealing. *rep-t-
rei: n – thing.. *rej-s
reke: v – rule, stretch *reg-
reken: n – kingdom, country *regno-
reki: n – kingdom. *regjo-
remuz: n – onion, garlic. *kremus-
rene: vt – buy. *kwren
renkel: aj – thin. rikel
renkelake: vt – thin so/sth
renkelast: n – thinness
renkelne: vi – thin
resk: n – rope, cord *rezg
revez: n – darkness, twilight, evening. V. erev. *eregwes
revezi: aj – dim, twilight
ri: aj – dear, beloved *prijo-
rib: n – spot, speckle. *ribh, roibh-
ribi: aj – spotted, speckled
rid: n – love, affection. Var. rinod. *priti
ridi: aj – affectionate, loving
rig: n – furrow, ditch. Firg. *prka
rijake: vt – endear
rije, rine: v – like, love *pri-, prine-
rim: n – number.. *rim
rime: vt – count
rimvag: aj – numberless, countless
rimvist: n – mathematics. V. matematika
rind, rend: n – buying. hirne. *krine-
rinod: n – affection, love
ro nuk: av – ago, before now
ro: pp – before;ago. V. andi. *pro
rob: aj – good
robake: vt – improve, ammeliorate
robne: vi – improve, get better
rod: n – wheel. V. hugel. *rot-
rodest: n – preposing, give priority
rodeze: v – prepose, put before
rogrist: n – protrusion
rogund: n – skirmish
rohori: n – scout, advance guard
roj: n – price
rojake: vt – set a cost, price; charge
roje: v – cost. *kwroi
rojvag: aj – priceless
rokikne, roknoje: v – have prescience, know before
rokond, roknod: n – foreknowledge
rokovag: n – prophet, foreteller
rokove: v – foretell
rokud: n – prophecy, foretelling
rom: aj – first; fird. *promo
rom: aj – still, rest, quiet
rombai: n – dawn V. uzer
romeder: n – estimate, guess
romedri: aj – approximate, estimated
romene: v – plan
romind: n – forethought
romindi: aj – careful, planned
romkenun: aj – firstborn
rommiz: n – breakfast. V. ermiz
rong: n – snore. (nose). *(s)ronk
ronge: v – snore. Var. rog
ronom: n – forename, first name
ronome: vt – use a forename with; be acquainted with (person)
ronomag, ronomend: n – friend; lit., one who uses a ronom
rospog: n – preview
rot: n – heart. dez tha __ believe *kerd, krod
rotboz: aj – frank, openhearted. V. bozroti, rotnogun
rotdivun, -difti: aj – resolute. V. minddivun
roterge: vt – foresee
rotfast: aj – V. mindfast
rotfu: aj – cowardly, mean-spirited.
rotgurm: aj – passionate, fervent
rotgurmast: n – passion, fervor
rothehte: v – prefabricate. rotheze
rothehtun: aj – prefabricated
rotirht: n – foresight
rotkrun: aj – dejected, heavyhearted
rotkrunast: n – dejection, heavyheartedness
rotmin: aj – cordial, friendly
rotnogun: aj – frank, open, candid. V. bozroti, rotboz
rotorg: n – foresight
rotvag: aj – heartless, cruel, callous
rov: n – meat, raw. V. miz. *krow, kreuj
rovag: n – butcher
rovetend: aj – carnivorous
rovi: aj – carnal, fleshly, meaty
rovist: n – foresight,-knowledge, prescience
rovite: v – foresee,-know
rovrejun: aj – forementioned
Roze: n – name
rud: n – falling, a fall. *ru-t-
ruder: aj – red.. *reudhro
ruderne: vi – redden (intr)
rudrake: vt – redden (tr)
rujake: v – fell, bring down, topple
ruje: v – fall.. *ru-
ruk: n – roar, yell, bellow
ruke: v – roar, yell, bellow. *reug
rung: n – back, ridge. *krung
rungost: n – spine, back-bone
rungostvag: aj – spineless
Rusja: n – Russia
Rusjag: n – Russian
rust: n – freezing, frost
rusti: aj – frosty
Rustingu: n – Russian language
ruzak: vt – freeze
ruze: v – freeze. *preus
ruzem: n – ice. V. kolor/d
ruzhist: n – refrigerator, freezer. “freeze box.” kel-/rust-hist

-S- [Back]
sa: i – well, so, thus.
sad: aj – enough; sated, satisfied. *sat
sadake: vt – satisfy, satiate. V. fodak
sadne: vi – become satisfied, have one's fill
saht: n – attempt, try
sake: v – try, attempt
salen: n – salt
salni: aj – salty, saline
Sare: n – name
sed: aj – true, real *seto
seft(im): n – seven. *septm
seft: n – following, consequence
seftind: aj – seventh
Seftmenez: n – September
seftnoht: n – week
sefttegim: n – seventy
Sefttin: n – Sunday. See tevumbeztin
sege: v – win *segh
segez: n – victory, winning
segezi: aj – victorious
seje: v – sow, plant seed
selber: aj – slippery, greasy
selez: n – swamp. *seles
selezi: aj – swampy
selke: v – release, emit, eject
sem: av – as, like. rimvag sem steren
sem: n – seed, semen
sembest: n – contiguity (learned borrowing?) sem + beze
semv: n – music
semvag: n – musician
semve: v – make music *senghw
seneg: aj – old
senegake: vt – age so/sth (wine), antique s.t.
senegne: vi – become old, age (wine, men)
serb: n – snake *serp
serbe: v – crawl
serbvist: n – herpetology
serke: v – shoot? noun sork
sest: aj – sixth
sestegim: n – sixty
Sestin: n – Saturday
sete: n – chair, bench
sete: v – sit *sed
sev: vt – cut
seve: v – follow. *sekw
sevend: pp – following, according to
sez: n – six *seks
Sezmenez: n – August
si (+je): pt
subjunctive particle; “let it be that (je).” *sjet
sidu: aj – straight, upright
sidune: vi – straighten (intr)
sidvake: vt – straighten (tr)
sil: n – seed, child, progeny?
sind: n – truth *sent, snt
sindbanend: aj – accurate, truthshowing
sindi: aj – true. V. sed
sinema: n – cinema, film
sivd/sift: n – sewing
sivder: n – thread
sive: v – sew. *sju
sivem: n – sewing, seam, stitch
Sjin: n – China. Var. Xin
Sjinag: n – Chinese person. Var. xinag
Sjintingu: n – Chinese language. Var. xintingu
sjofer*: lw/n – chauffeur. Var. xofer
sjok*: lw/n
surprise, shock. Var. xok
skir: aj – clear, sharp *skeir
skirake: vt – sharpen, clarify sth/sb
skirast: n – clearness, sharpness
skirne: vi – clear (of weather), come into focus
skod: n – shade, shadow *skotw
skodi: aj – shadowy, insubstantial
skodvag: aj – shadeless, unshadowed
skoi: n – knife
skove: v – notice, mark, regard
skrift: n – writing
skrivag: n – writer, author
skrive: v – write
skrivend: n – scribe, copyist
skud: n – covering, shield *sku-t-
skuni: aj – noticeable
sliv: aj – blue, dark. liv *sliwo
slivake: vt – make blue, darken
slivne: vi – become blue, dark (a bruise, etc)
slube: v – slip, slide *sleubh
sluk-: ?
smed: n – spot, blemish *sme-t
smedvag: aj – immaculate, spotless
smek: n – taste. cf taste and have flavor
smekvag: aj – tasteless
smerake: vt – remind
smere: v – remember. *smer
smereme: v – mnemonic, reminder
smi: n – laugh, smile; be surprised, wonder *smi
smidi: n – wonderful
smijake: vt – amaze, surprise, delight, amuse
smird: n – memory, remembrance
smirdstal: n – memorial
smirdvagast: n – amnesia
smirz: n – butter, grease, oil
smivag: a – boring, uninteresting
smorz: n – butter, grease *smorso
snad: n – swim(ming)
snaje: v – swim *sna
snegu: n – snow. snev, nev *sneighw
snubake: vt – marry a couple
snube: v – marry. *sneubh
snuft: n – marriage
snuftrid: n – marital love
snufttar: n – dowry, marriage gift
snumbe: n – spouse. *snumbh
snuz: n – daughter in law. nuz V. kemer * snusos
soju: aj – late *se
sojvake: v – make late, delay, procrastinate
solb: n – grease, oil *solpa
solbi: aj – greasy, oily
solen: n – sun
solenird: n – sunrise, dawn
solentheft: n – sunwarmth
solenthorzakun: aj – sun-dried
solni: aj – solar, helio-, sunny
solu: aj – all, entire *solwo
soluhi: pn – everyone. *solwo + *kwi
soluhun: pn – everything. *solwo + *kwo
soluhuz: pn – everywhere
solukond: n – omniscience. *solwo + *gen
solumeht: n – omnipotence. *solwo + *meg
solutu: av – always. *solwo + *du
solvake: vt – include. Solvak thamen no vazi grup.
solvast: n – entirety, allness
som: aj – like, similar, equal(ly)
somake: vt – assimilate, make similar, equalize
somast: n – similarity
sombasti: aj – similar, apearing the same
someznast: n – relation, consanguinity
somezni: aj – kindred (by blood)
sommedri: aj – commensurate, equal
sommindi: aj – like-minded, thinking
somne: vi – assimilate
sonkindi: n – twin
sonkond: n – common knowledge, consensus
sonkrunast: n – equilibrium
sonkruni: aj – balancing, equally important/heavy
sonnomi: aj – synonymous
sontolg: aj – equally long
sot: n – path, way *sodo
sotfast: aj – routine, habitual, automatic
sotvag: aj – pathless, aimless, lost
sovi: n – follower. *sokwjo-
spal: aj – thin, diffuse, tenuous; dense. spag, span
spalake: vt – thin s.t. (soup, etc.)
spalast: n – thinness, diffuseness
spalne: vi – thin (hair, woods)
spar: aj – capacious, spacious, roomy *spa
sparast: n – spaciousness, roominess
sped: n – prosperity, success
spedi: aj – prosperous, successful
spege: v – look, regard *spek
speje: v – succeed, prosper *spe
spen: n – nipple, nozzle, spigot *speni
sperake: vt – spread, disperse
spere: v – spread, extensive
spink: n – chirping bird *sping
spir: aj – successful. *spej-r
spirake: vt – make successful
spirast: n – success
spirne: vi – become successful
spog: n – view, look, sight *spok
spud: n – spit. spum *spew, spu-t
spuje: v – spit, spew *spew
srebe: v – drink, swallow *srebh
sreft: n – drink, swallow *srebh-t
srud/srum: n – flow, stream *srumo
sruje: v – flow *sreu
sruvake: vt – make flow, set flowing
stad: n – place, standing *sta-t
stadal/m: n – stall, standing place *stadhl
stadfange/-derge/-gambe: n – placeholder, placebo, substitute
stajake: vt – stand st, put up, set up, place
staje: v – stand up, arise. stand
stam: n – strength, standing power
Stefan: n – Steven
steht: n – covering
steke: v – cover. *steg
stene: v – rumble, thunder, groan
stere: v – scatter. stird
steren: n – star. rimvag sem steren
sterenvist: n – astronomy. V. astronomja
stige: v – climb, mount
stir: aj – stable. star
stirake: vt – stabilize
stok: n – roof. thok *steg, stog
stokag: n – thatcher
straje: v – scatter, strew. ster
strid: n – scattering
strije: v – scatter. *str, ster
strud: n – scattering
struje: v – scatter
su: n – pig. V. svin *su, swin
subni: n – dream. *swopnjom
sud: n – pressing *su-t
suft: n – sleep *swep, sup-t
sufthod: n – bedroom
sul: n – juice, liquid *su+l
suli: aj – juicy, liquid
sumbe: v – sleep. *swep, sump
sump: n – sponge. *swomb
sun: n – son *sunu
sun: n – sound. V. dune *swen, swon
sunake: vt – make sound, ring st
sund: n – sounding
sunomdezun: aj – well-named
sur: aj – sour, bitter *sur
surake: vt – embitter, make sour
surgake: vt – concern, worry s.o.
surge: v – worry about
surht: n – concern, worry *sworgh-t
surt: aj – black, dark *sword
surtake: vt – blacken
surtast: n – black-, darkness
surtne: vi – blackens
sut: aj – sweet. V. mel
sutake: vt – sweeten
suve/suje: v – press
suve: v – rain *sweh
suz: aj – dry, thirsty *souso
suzake: vt – dry so/sth
suzast: n – dryness, drought
suzer: n – sister. *swesor
suzne: vi – become dry, thirsty
sve: aj – his, her, its; self. sove
sved: n – habit, custom
svedi: aj – habitual, customary
svegur: n – parent in law *swekuro
svend: aj – healthy. *swento
svendakag: n – healer
svendake: vt – make healthy, heal
svendakej: n – healing, curing
svendast: n – health
Svensktingu/Svertingu: n – Swedish language
Sverigag: n – Swedish person
Sverige: n – Sweden
svi: aj – one's own. sove, svo-
sviluft: n – self love
svin: n – pig. su *swein
svinmiz: n – pork. *swein + mems
svinofag: n – self-control
svistad: n – independence
svitake: vt – make sweat
svite: v – sweat. *sweid
svivalst: n – self rule, autonomy
svivalsti: aj – autonomous

-T- [Back]
tabe: vi – exchange, trade *dap
taft: n – trade, exchange
tager: n – tear, cry *dark
tagre: v – tear, cry
taje: v – give. tit, tan *da
tajur: n – sib in law. tever *daiwer
tange: v – bite *dank
tar/n: n – gift
tav: v – bet, damage, hurt, harm, risk, chance *dabh
tav: n – torch dau
taze, tanze: v
teach, learn *dns
tast: n – teaching, instruction, lesson
tege: v – receive, accept *dek
tegel: a – receptive, accepting
Tegenmenez: n – January. Janvar
tegim: n – ten. also, tej *dekm
tegimemven: n – nineteen;tegemven
tegimen: n – eleven;tegmen
tegimfengi: n – fifteen;tekfengi
tegimhedur: n – fourteen;tegedur
tegimoht: n – eighteen;tegoht
tegimseft: n – seventeen;tekseft
tegimsez: n – sixteen;teksez
tegimthir: n – thirteen;tekthir
tegimto: n – twelve;tekto
tegind: aj – tenth. *dekm + to
Tegintomenez, Tegtomenez: n – February
Tegmenez: n – December
tejzen: n – right, south. tezen, tesken *deksn
tejzenvoz: n – southeast. voztejzen
tejznuger: n – southwest. ugertejzen
tekniki*: lw/aj – technical
tere: v – rip, tear. tird *der
tergduj: aj – visible
tergdujast: n – visibility
terge: v – look, V. *derk
terv: n – tree *drewo, dru
tervhitakag: n – lumberjack, treecutter
tervi: aj – tree-, arboreal
terzen: n – appearance, look, face *drksna
tesken: n
south (alternative form)
tev: n – god *deiwos
tevhand: n – liturgy. *deiwos + kan + t
tevi: aj – divine, godlike
tevumbez: n – heaven, paradise
tevumbeztin: n – Sunday. V. Sefttin
tid: n – division. *di-t
tidvag: aj – undivided, whole, integer
tig: n – direction. *dik
tige: v – point out, show
tigen: aj – proud, noble
tigvag: aj – aimless, errant, wandering
tiht: n – showing, indication
tije: v – divide, separate *di
tilge: v – owe, ought to, should *delgh
tilht: n – debt
timbot: n – foundation *dmped
tin: n – day *dino
tind: n – tooth *denti
tindhugel: n – gear, toothwheel
tindmin: aj – toothed
tingu: n – language, tongue *dnghu(a)
tingudiht: n – language making, conlanging. V. tinguhurd
tingugund: n – argument, “tongue-fight”
tinguhurd: n – language making, conlanging
tingumel: aj – eloquent, "tonguesweet"
tingumin: aj – tongued
tinguvist: n – linguistics
tinguvistag: n – linguist
tinguvizukje: n – language growth
tingvali: aj – having other tongues
tingvi: aj – lingual
tini: aj – daily
tinmedeg: n –midday, noon
tinmiz: n – daymeal, dinner
tintolg: aj – day long, all-day
tird: n – tearing
tirht: n – seeing. terged/m; torog
tiv: n – god *deiwo
tive: vi – shine
tivez: n – sky. tiyoz *dyeus
tivi: aj – divine, godlike
tivsot: n – divine journey
tivtar: n
gift of God; Theodore
tivvist: n – theology
to(v): n – two. to *dwou
to(v)ne: vi – double, duplicate
tod: aj – second. tovd. V. ani
tohuge: n – bicycle. torod.
tokudmin, -i: aj – ambiguous
tokunmin, -i: aj – bigamous
tolg: aj – long *dolgho
tolgaivi: aj – longlived aju + i. -evi
tolgake: vt – lengthen
tolgakej: n – elongation
tolgast: n – length. tolgod
tolgevi: aj – longlived
tolgne: vi – lengthen, become longer
tolgod: n – length. V. tolgast. *dolgho-ta
Tomas: n – name
Tomenez: n – April
tonomi: aj – two-named, binomial
torgukud: n – review, report; torg+u+ kov. *derk + *gow
torod: n – bicycle
torodi: aj – two-wheeled
toterzni: aj – two faced, deceitful
Totin: n – Tuesday
totingvi: aj – deceitful, bilingual
totu: av – twice
tovake: vt – double, duplicate, copy
trovake: vt – convert, convince
trove: v – believe. *drew
trud: n – belief, religion *dru-t
trud: n – fool, jester
truddivun: aj – devout, bigoted, fanatic
trudfast: n – devout, pious, orthodox
trudgurm: aj – zealous, devout
trudgurmast: n – zeal, devotion
trudi: aj – religious, pious
trudvag: aj – heathen, pagan, atheist
trun: aj, n – wood(en). *drun
tu: av – adverbial temporal suffix *-du
tuge: v – pull, draw, appeal *deuk
tuht: n – traction, pull, draw, appeal *deuk + ti
tun: v – remain, persist, last *dew-n, dun-
tunake: v – make last, make persist, cause to remain
Turkijag: n – Turkish person
Turkije: n – Turkey
Turktingu: n – Turkish language
tust: n – lack, fault, blame *dus-ti
tusteg: v – misconstrue, receive ill, ill-accept
tustvag: aj – blameless
tuz: n – lack, fault, blame *dus
tuzalun: aj – ill-nourished
tuzanze: v – disfavor, scorn
tuzbasti: aj – ill-seeming
tuzburke: v – abuse, misuse
tuzderzend: aj – foolhardy
tuzdume: v – reek, stink
tuzdun: n – cacophony, clangor
tuze: v – lack, fault, blame. toze *dus
tuzhurun: aj – ill-made
tuzkenakun: aj – ill-begotten
tuzkonake: vt – disinform, inform ill
tuzkonakej: n – disinformation
tuznust: n – misuse
tuznute: v – ill-use
tuzrid: n – dislike
tuzrine: v – dislike
tuztherbe: v – suffer
tuztherft: n – suffering
tuzthuri: aj – ill-shaped, misshapen
tuzukun: aj – misshapen ??
tuzunend: aj – malevolent
tuzurd: n – mishap, accident
tuzurke: v – misemploy

-Th- [Back]
tha(n/v): pt – accus. marker
thag: aj – silent. thuz *tak
thagake: vt – silence, hush
thagast: n – silence
thagne: vi – become quiet, silent
the ne: cj – lest, that not
the: cj – so that, in order. V. dil
thebake: vt – warm s.t.
thebe: v – be warm *tep
thebend: aj – warm
thebne: vi – become warm
thedru: n – partridge. *teterwo
theft: n – warmth. *tepti
thegem: n – child. *tekm
thegemag: n – nurse
thegmi: aj – childlike, -ish
thehte: v – build. theze *tekt
thel: v – lift, raise? *tel
thelen: n – floor
themez: n – darkness. *temes-
themezi: aj – dark
thendel: n – net. V. red *tentlo
thene: v – stretch tr. thene tha-hurb *ten
therbe: v – experience, enjoy *terp
therbere: v – transport, ferry
therbird: n – portage
there: v – cross. *ter
thereg: pp – across. thergu, therev, thirv *terekw
theregmorki: aj – transnational, cross-country
thereje: v – transit
therid: n – transit
therkovag: n – translator
therkove: v – translate
therkud: n – translation
thermereki: aj – transnational; var. theregmorki
thersune: vt – transliterate, “cross-sound”
thersund: n – transliteration theruft: n – translation
therumbag: n – translator
therumbdujast: n – translatability
therumbe: v – translate
therzake: vt – frighten, terrify. *tres-, ters-
therzakend: expr – wonderful!; lit., terrifying
theve: aj – your(s)
theve: v – serve. *tekw
theven: n – servant. *tekn
thik: n – point, sharp *(s)tig
thikake: vt – sharpen
thild: n – lifting, raising? V. thel
thind: n – stretching
thindi: aj – tensile, stretching, elastic
thir: n – three *treyes
third: aj – third
third: n – crossing;ford
thirft: n – experience, pleasure, enjoyment
thirfti: aj – experienced, pleasant
Thirmenez: n – May
thirtegim: n – thirty
Thirtin: n – Wednesday
thok: n – roof. V. stok. *tog
thold: n – lifting. V. thild
thole: v – lift. V. thel. *tol
thonht: n – seeming. thoht
thonkake: vt – pretend
thonke: v – seem. *teng
thor: n – bull *taur
thorhergi: aj – bullheaded, stupid, stolid
thorzake: vt – dry sth/sb. V. suzak
thorzne: vi – become dry
Thosk: n – name of this language. Thod. *tout-sk
thu(n)g: aj – fat. *tu(n)k
thu: pn – you. theve, tho. betho to you *tu
thud: n – people, clan *teuta
thudhereg: n – leader of thud
thudmenge: aj – populous
thudvalst: n – democracy
thudvalsti: aj – democratic
thugake: vt – fatten sth/sb
thur: n – form, shape *twer
thurmift: n – transformation, shapechanging
thurmivag: n – shapechanger, magician, transformer
thurvag: aj – formless, shapeless
thust: n – silence. *tusti
thute: v – push, press V. stut, thunt
thuz: aj – silent
thuzake: vt – silence sth/sb
thuzne: vi – become silent

-U- [Back]
u medegvil: av
meanwhile
u medgi: pp – among, between
u.r.s.: ab – (u rovrejun stad) in the forementioned place
u: pp – near, by, at *upo
ub/umbe: v – say, speak. uv (*wekw?)
udun: aj – fated, destined
uft: n – saying, speaking *wekw + ti
ugend: n – twenty. Totegim *w(d)kmti
uger: n – west *weker
ugermerek: n – occident
uht: n – growth. uhst/ust
uhurdban: n – adverb
uj: n – egg *owyom
uju: n – wind. vej *weyu
uke: v – grow. V. ok/auk *aug
uld: n – will, volition *wel + ti
uldfast: aj – determined, resolute. *wel + ti + past
uldi: aj – voluntary, volitional, willed. *wel + ti + jo
uldvag: aj – involuntary, unintentional. *wel + ti + eu/wa
ule: v – will, intend. *wel
ulegend: aj – adjacent. *upo + legh + ent
ulg: n – wolf. *wlkwo
ulog: n – bystander, nearby thing. *upo + legh
ulogi: aj – handy, available, on hand
umene: v – remain. Umne. *upo + men
umind: n – permanence. *upo + men + ti
umindvag: aj – transient, impermanent. *upo + men + ti + eu/wa
umindvagast: n – impermanence. *upo + men + ti + eu/wa + st-
und: n – desire *wen + ti
undrud: n – disappointment. *wen + ti + ru + ti
undrudi: aj – disappointing. undrujend
undvag: aj – passionless, hopeless
une: v – hope, desire, want. *wen
ung: n – habit, custom. *unk
ungake: vt – accustom so to/with st; st with so
ungakej: n – acclimatization, adjustment
unge: v – be accustomed, in habit of v-ing
ungi: aj – habitual/customary/usual
unomban: n – adjective
unt: n – wave, ripple
unte: v – wave, ripple *und
unti: aj – wavy, ripply
untog: n – tsunami, great wave -og sfx
ur: pp – over, above. V. *uper
urast: n – superiority
urd: n – belief
urde: v – turn, become, happen *wert-
urdest: n – superposition
urdeze: v – superpose, put above
urdvag: aj – heathen V. trudvag
urdvagast: n – disbelief, atheism
urfalt: n – overcoat
urgrede: v – superordinate, step over
urgredi: aj – superordinate, superior
urgrest: n – superordination
urht: n – labor, work
urkake: vt – employ. urkdeze
urke: v – work, labor *werg
urkem: n – tool, instrument
urkemag: n – craftsman
urkvag: aj – unemployed
urmoht: n – superior power
urspog: n – overview
urst: n – turning, becoming
urstanend: aj – superior
urt: n – root, vegetable. V. gelenurt *wrad
urterge: v – oversee, supervise
urti: aj – radical, root-
urtirht: n – supervision
urtorg: n – supervision
urtvag: aj – rootless, insubstantial
urtvagast: n – rootlessness
uru: aj – wide. urve, urv
urune: vi – widen.. *euru+ neu
urvake: vt – widen
urvale: v – dominate, overrule
urvalst: n – dominion
urvast: n – width. urust
usetend: aj – neighboring, nearby, adjacent
ut: pp – up *ud
uteje: v – rise, go up
uten: n – water *udor/n
utenberag: n – water bearer, Aquarius
utenfodest: n – water displacement (of a ship)
utenhugel/rod: n – waterwheel
utenmird: n – drowning
utenvag: aj – anhydrous
utid: n – ascent, rising *ud + eje + ti
utirake: vt – erect, raise up
utni: aj – watery. *udr/udn + jo
utstad: n – rise, standing up, levitation
utstaje: v – rise, stand up
utstige: v – ascend, climb up, mount
utstiht: n – climb, ascent
uve: n – speaker
uz: n – ear *aus
uzer: n – dawn
uzre: v – dawn uzerne, uzrak

-V- [Back]
v: ab/v – see, look at; abbrev. for vite
v: pt – past tense suffix
vad: aj – inspired, poet, mad *wati
vadake: vt – inspire
vadakej: n – inspiration
vag: aj – empty, lacking. n suffix
vagast: n – emptiness, lack
valan: aj – healthy, hale, whole
vald: n – rule, country *wal + ti
valnast: n – health. *wal+n+st
valst: n – power, rule, authority
van: aj – empty, weak * ew, wa
vanake: vt – weaken
vanakej: n – weakening, enervation
vanast: n – emptiness, weakness
vange: aj – crooked. *wonk
vanne: vi – weaken, become empty
vast: n – desert, tundra
vaz: pn – you. iv, vaz. *wos
ve: cj – or. *we
vebe: v – weave *webh
vedz: n – year *wetes-
vedzarkend: n – tribute, pension
vedzhind: n – century
vedzi: aj – yearly, annual
vedzlengu: aj – young, youthful
vedzteg(im): n – decade
vedztin: n – anniversary
veft: n – weaving. *webh-ti
vege: v – carry, transport *wegh
veht: n – transportation V. ber-
vem: n – lung
ven: n – war *woina
veni: aj – martial
venmindi: aj – bellicose
vere: v – believe. *wer
vest: n – clothing. *westi-
vestmin: aj – clothed
vestvag: aj – unclothed, naked
veze: v – dwell;wear, dress *wes
vezen: n – spring. *wesr/n
vezni: aj – vernal, Spring-
vi: pp – dis-, un- *wi
vibalst: n – reviling, despising
vibalte: v – despise, revile, profane
vibast: n – disappearance
vibazake: v – make disappear
vibaze: v – disappear, vanish
viberge: v – leave defenseless, abandon
viberht: n – abandonment
viburht: n – disuse
vide: v – separate, divide
vider(g)e: v – release, loose
videst: n – displacement
videze: v – displace, put aside
vidird, -dirht: n – release
vidu: n – widower, orphan V. orb
vifage: v – release
vifaht: n – release
vigaft: n – release
vigambe: vt – release
vigest: n – detaching, unsticking
vigeze: v – unstick, detach
vihude: v – reveal, unhide
vihurd: n – unmaking, destruction
vihure: v – unmake, destroy
vihurunje: n – destruction
vihust: n – revelation, unhiding
vijuht: n – separation, disjunction
vijunke: v – disjoin, separate
vijurd: n – doubt
vijurdmin: aj – doubtful
vijure: v – doubt
viklid: n – detaching, unsticking
viklije: v – unstick, detach
vikove: v – renounce. vi-kuz, -lek
vikud: n – renunciation
vil: n – time. V. also hil. *kweila
vili: aj – temporal, timely
vilmed: n – time measurement, timing
vilmeje: vt – time, clock
vilonak: vt – empty
vilonast: n – emptiness
vilonne: vi – empty
vilvag: aj – timeless, atemporal
vilvagast: n – timelessness
vimogake: vt – disable, disempower, debilitate
vimoht: n – disempowerment, debilitation
vin: n – wine
vininge: vt – unbow, unbend. V. nive
vinost: n – untying
vinote: vt – untie
virust: n – thaw
viruzake: vt – thaw s.t.
viruze: vi – thaw
vismere: vt – forget
vismird: n – forgetting, oblivion
visnube: vt – divorce (from)
visnuft: n – divorce
vist: n – seeing, science, -ology
vistag: n – scientist
visteke: vt – uncover. fostek
vistirake: vt – destabilize
vite: v – see, know. V. terge. *weid
vithehte: vt – unbuild, demolish, destroy
vithene: vt – unstretch, unstring (bow)
vithind: n – unstretching, unstringing
Vitilgag: n – Redeemer
vitilge: v – ransom, pay debt, redeem
vitilht: n – ransom, redeeming
vitust: n – forgiveness, excusing
vituz(ak)e: v – excuse, forgive
vivest: n – undressing
viveze: v – undress. V. fovez
viz: pt – perf. act. part. suffix
vogn: n – wagon, cart. vogl/n *weghlo
vognag: n – cartwright
vot: n – liquid
votake: vt – liquify
voti: aj – liquid, watery
voz: n – east *aus
vozmerek: aj – orient, eastland
vred: n – speech, telling, saying
vredvag: aj – speechless
vreg: aj – bad, crooked *wroiko
vregake: vt – corrupt
vregast: n – badness, evil, crookedness
vregkove: v – curse, abuse, condemn
vregkud: n – curse, abuse, condemnation
vregne: vi – worsen, de-teriorate, -cline, -generate
vregot: n – stench, stink
vregotag: n – stinker
vregoti: aj – stinking
vregozag: n – vulgar/obscene person
vregozi: aj – obscene, vulgar
vregur: n – bad deed. vreg + hur
vregure: v – do evil
vregurend: n – evildoer, malefactor
vregvili: aj – ill-timed, inopportune. tuzvili
vreje: vt – say, tell, speak, narrate *wrej
vrist: n – amusement, laughter
vristi: aj – amusing, laughable
vritake: vt – amuse, make laugh
vritakend: aj – amusing, funny
vrite: vi – laugh. *wreid

-Z- [Back]
zjanre*: lw/n – genre, kind
zjurnal*: lw/n – magazine, journal


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